Cliff Palace was inhabited between 1190's to 1270's A.D. and had more than 150 rooms. This cultural group was primarily agricultural, growing their crops up on the mesa above.
The kivas are considered ceremonial rooms - perhaps used for healing rites, to pray for rain, luck in hunting or for a good crop. They were also gathering places and sometimes a place to weave. The inhabitants were expert basket weavers, but their craft fell into decline around the time they lived here.
The fire pit is shown in the center of this kiva, with a fresh air vent (rectangular) built into the wall. The air deflector (thin vertical stone helped control the flame and the smoke).